A card game of the German Revolution by Gerhard H. Kuhlmann
KUHLMANN Geschichtsspiele 1998
Extended Basic Rules for 2, 3 or 4 Players


Game Contents

26 Event cards (A01-A26)
42 Character cards (PE01-PE42)
34 Action cards (Z01-Z34)
4 Rules cards 1(4) to 4(4)
4 cards containing information on Kuhlmann games*
*) these spare cards has a function in the game
Plus in newer editions: A half-size sheet with the extended basic rules.

The Goal of the Game

The goal of game is to play the Character and Action cards in such a way that you have authoritative control over the course of the revolution by controlling the most popular party at the end of each round.
The Republicans and the Democrats wanted to create a German Federal Republic after American example. The Liberals strove for a Parlamentary Monarchy after English or Belgian example. The Reactionary wanted to leave everything as it were in 1848 and oriented towards Russia.

The Setup

a) Event cards: Sort the cards by number (A1-A26) and place them as an open deck.
b) Character cards: Shuffle the cards PE01-PE42 and place them as a closed deck.
c) Action cards: Shuffle the cards Z01-Z34 and place them as another closed deck.
d) Each player draw two Character cards, two Action cards and a spare card.
e) Decide who will go first.

The Gameplay

The game is played in rounds:
I. Reveal the top Event card and place it face up next to the Event deck.
II. Players alternate in playing a card from their hands until all players have passed.
III. Scoring. The winner of the round takes the Event card.
IV. Replenish hand and play a new round - unless someone meets the end game conditions, in which case the game ends.

I. Event card

The text and symbols on the cards has no influence on the gameplay in this version. The Event cards are simply used to keep track of the number of rounds played and who scored.

II. Playing cards

In his turn a player must either play a card, discard a card or pass:
The player may play any one card from his hand and place it openly on the table in front of himself ("in his faction"). Cards with a train symbol [a silhouette locomotive in the upper left corner] may be played on any player. A few cards will remove other cards from the game, but most will be placed on table and will affect cards in that faction only. The specific cards are described below.
A player may discard one of his cards instead of playing. In that case he shoves the unwanted card beneath its corresponding deck without revealing its identity. This way the player is still in the game and he may play another card in his next turn.
NOTE: The last player to play cards after all others have passed may no longer discard.
After the first round may a player choose to pass. A player who has passed cannot play any further cards this round, until someone plays a train card on him or a new Army card gets into play. A player who has run out of cards must pass. A single player may continue to play cards as long as he able to. The round ends when all players have passed.
Use the spare card to indicate that a player has passed.

III. Scoring

How the round is scored depends on the political situation:
Political Strength is counted when no Military combo* is present.
Military Strength is counted whenever a Military combo* is in play.
*) Military Leader(s) with an attached Army card.
Only one of the types of Strength will be counted during the scoring, and the winner will receive the Event card in addition to his score.
If a clear winner cannot be determined (there is a tie between parties or between players within the largest party) will the Event card stay on the table, and a new round will be played for the same card.
Political Strength
The strength of each party (Republican, Democrats, Liberal and Reactionary) are determined by adding the Votes (listed in bold) at the bottom of all cards on the table. Each player will keep a separate score for each party, and the player who controls the biggest faction within the largest party will win the round.
Example: The Republicans have a total of 9 Votes, the Democrats have 42, The Liberals 45 and the Reactionary 15 Votes. The Liberals is the largest party. Alan has delivered 20 of the 45 Votes, Britt has 12, Claudia 10 and Derk 3 of the Liberal Votes. Alan wins the round.
When calculating the votes some Characters may end up with negative values:
Example: Claudia has played Schurtz (PE03) Republican worth 3, the Herweghs (PE04) Republicans worth 2 and Sigel (PE07) Republican worth 1. Derk plays Louis Napoleon (Z20) against her, which decreases their worth to: (3-3)+(2-3)+(1-3) = minus 3 Votes.
Military Strength
The political scene is subdued by the presence of a Military Force. When at least one Military Leader/Army-combo is in play will the winner be determined by the Military, and only one player will score this round. He will receive 50% of all Military Strength (fractions removed) on the table:
  • The winner is the player controlling the strongest Leader/Army if they all support the same political party.
  • If the Armies are supporting different political parties will the largest Party (with Military support) win the round, and the player controlling the strongest army within that party will score.

End Game check:
Continue with phase IV unless the game is over:
The 4-player game ends as soon as one player has won 4 Event cards,
The 3-player game ends as soon as one player has won 5 Event cards,
The 2-player game ends as soon as one player has won 6 Event cards.

IV. Replenish hand

All played cards are discarded with the exception of the Pass cards, which are returned to the players hands. (Reshuffle the discard pile when a deck is depleted).
Turn over the next Event card if a player won the previous card.
Draw cards:
Each player may draw a maximum of 2 Character cards and 2 Action cards,
but may not exceede the hand limit of 6 cards.
One of each type must be taken when drawing two cards.
EXAMPLE: A player who has passed without playing cards has a hand of 2 PE and 2 Z. He may draw two additional cards, which must be a PE and a Z-card. A player who has 2 Z-cards in his hand may draw 2 PE and 2 Z-cards. A player with 5 cards may choose to draw either type of card. A player with 3 cards will first draw one of each type, and then he may decide which type his last card should be. A player with 6 cards cannot draw any cards.
A player may play all 6 cards during a round, but he are not allowed to draw more than 2 Character cards and 2 Action cards.

The Winner

When the game is over (see "End Game check" above) will the winner be determined as the player who has accumulated the most Victory Points. Ties are broken in favor of having the most Event cards.
Distribution of Victory Points:
All points (votes) received for each Party by all players are added together to find the most succesful party:
Absolute Majority: If the winning Party has achieved more Votes than all other parties combined, will the player(s) who contributed the most votes receive 5 Victory Points and no other player will score.
Simple Majority: If a party won by simply having more Votes than any other single party, will the player(s) who contributed the most votes (incl. Military strength) to each party receive a number of Victory points depending of the size of the party:
4 Victory Points for the largest party
3 Victory Points for the second-largest party
2 Victory Points for the third-largest party
1 Victory Point for the smallest party.

Description and use of the Cards

The text on the Event cards serves no purpose - other than historical flavor - in this game, and consequently has not been translated. A complete translation will follow with the rules for the complex historical recreation of the German Revolution in 1848.

Character cards

All the major characters from the political scene at the events of the German Revolution in 1848. Each card carries the following information: Card number (PE01-PE42). Name of the Character(s). Contemporary portrait. Home area (sometimes with a precision).
All important information is at the bottom of the cards:
Political Alignment, Votes, and for Military Leaders: Army Strength (in Cross) and Nationality (Flag).
A Character will only count as a Military leader when attached to a Army card.

Army cards

Army cards are part of the Action deck, but as they have totally different functions they have been clearly separated by having a green background. Each card contains the following information: Card number (Z28-Z34), spiked helmet silhouette signifying it as a Military card, illustration, name of the Army and a card number for that army.
Again, the only information of importance is at the bottom of the card:
Nationality (Flag) and Military Strength (Cross).
Army cards may be played at any time, but have no influence (function) unless attached to a Military Leader (Character cards with a Military Cross), and the card may automatically be taken by another player.
Suitable Military Leaders
Army cards will be attached to suitable Military Leaders when available. A Military Leader is any Personality card with a Military strength (number in a cross symbol). An Army will first of all follow a Leader of its own nationality (Austrian, Prussian or German flag). If more Leaders of the same nationality are in play, will stronger Leader take the Army. More Leaders of the same nationality (controlled by the same player) may be combined to take control over a single Army card.
Example: A player who has played Schwartzenberg and Windischgrätz (5 Austrian Military points) can take the Army away from a player who has played Radetsky (4 Austrian points).
A Military Leader may only overtake an Army of different nationality when a Leader of that nationality isn't available. A player giving up his Army will still keep any Military Leader in front of him.
Military Leaders may have a single Army card attached to them. Army cards may be attached to a single Leader or a group of Military Leaders from the same country (Flag symbol) controlled by the same player. Unattached Army cards will automatically be attached the most suitable free Leader when available - even if that Leader belongs to another player.
Special cases:
A player plays an Army card and two players each have a free Military Leader of identical strength and nationality. In this case may the player of the Army card decide who it goes to.
Card Z15 (25. March 1848) Jellacic functions like a Army card with the exception that it can only be attached to Austrian Military Leaders (white-black flag).
Scoring for Military Strength:
Army cards have no value unless attached to Military Leader. A Character card will only be regarded as a Military Leader when attached to a Army card. In other words will Military Strength only be used when both types are attached to each other.
Military strength is worth 50% (rounded down) of their printed value when scoring (Example: Military strength of 15 = 7 score points). Several Army cards with Military Leaders belonging to the same party, are simply added together before division.
Only the strongest party score Military points for their Armies, and all points are credited to the player within that party who controls the strongest Army.
Example 1:
Player 1: Has Z33 (Prussia 15) with PE41 (Wrangel - Prussia 3)
Player 2:No Army
Player 3:Z29 (Austria 17) with PE35 (Windischgrätz - Austria 3)
Player 4:No Army
Player 3 score 19 points for the Reactionary: (15+3) + (17+3) = 38/2 = 19
because the Austrian army are stronger than the Prussian.

Only if the strongest party is Reactionary will the value of red Military strength count against them. The red cross have no influence against other parties. These points are deducted from the player with the strongest reactionary Army. Exception: Cards with the red cross do not count against an Army attached to a Military Leader carrying the German "Bundesfahne" flag (black/red/yellow).
Example 2:
Player 1: Has Z33 (Prussia 15) with PE40 (Prince Wilhelm - Prussia 2)
Player 2:No Army
Player 3:Z29 without a Military Leader
Player 4:Z13 (March 18: National Political Commitee - minus 11)
Player 1 score 3 points for the Reactionary: 17 - 11 = 6/2 = 3

Military Leaders are not as vulnerable
With exception of Lola Montez (Z07) and Bauernunruhen (Z17) can a Military Leader never be influenced by Action cards. This include all cards which add or subtract Votes.

Action cards

The blue cards describes various political envent and actions from the era. Each card includes: card number (Z01-Z27), Headline, description and illustration of the Event.
All information regarding the action is listed at the bottom part of the card.
Action card translations.

These rules has been written in consultation with the designer
Translation: Mik Svellov 2001 v2.0